Inferential statistics help or grinds in SPSS or STATA are widely sought after these days by researchers in Dublin. With so many top-level universities in Dublin using SPSS or STATA for conducting research, it is expected that inferential statics will be part of their research. This indeed also has had an impact on the number of researchers in Dublin seeking help or grinds in SPSS or STATA. This article explores some of the most common aspects of inferential statistics using SPSS or STATA, which researchers in Dublin seek help or assistance:

**HYPOTHESIS TESTING:**

At Data Analysis Ireland, we often receive a very high demand for assistance with hypothesis testing in SPSS or STATA. As inferential statistics is huge and varies depending upon the need of research, there is a basic rule of thumb that Dublin researchers can use for both SPSS and STATA. The rule is that if p<=0.05, reject the null hypothesis. For example, let’s look at the normality test, Shapiro-Wilk for a variable ‘Age of Dublin residents’ in both SPSS and STATA.

**Null hypothesis: **

Age of Dublin residents is normally distributed

**Alternative hypothesis: **

Age of Dublin residents is not normally distributed

The fictitious data of ‘Age of Dublin residents’ in SPSS is shown below:

As shown in the screenshot, we just have 12 fictitious Dublin residents with their respective age shown in SPSS. Running the Shapiro-Wilk test in SPSS provides the following output:

In this case, as the p-value is greater than 0.05, the null hypothesis of ‘Age of Dublin residents’ cannot be rejected in SPSS. This implies that ‘Age of Dublin residents’ is normally distributed. Surprisingly, while most Dublin researchers would want a particular statistical test to be significant in SPSS or STATA; in this case, a statistically significant test leads to your data being not normally distributed.

**T-TESTS:**

Another important statistical test that we often assist Dublin researchers in SPSS or STATA is the T-test. T-tests in SPSS or STATA could be of various types: one sample, independent-samples t-test, paired-samples t-test etc. While we assist Dublin researchers will all types of t-tests in SPSS or STATA, let us focus on independent samples t-test in SPSS today. The fictitious data on ‘Age of Dublin residents’ and their gender is shown below:

Assuming that we get data that is normally distributed in SPSS or STATA for Dublin residents, we can then use an Independent Samples t-test to establish if the difference in age of males and females of Dublin residents is statistically significant or not.

As seen in the SPSS output of the Independent Samples T-test, the test is statistically insignificant (t=-0.93, p=0.38). This implies the null hypothesis cannot be rejected and there is no statistically significant difference in the mean age of Dublin males and Dublin females.

**CORRELATION:**

Another important aspect on which we get Dublin students and researchers seeking help is correlation between two variables, using both SPSS and STATA. Let us look at the fictitious data below in SPSS, where we have added the weekly income of Dublin residents in SPSS.

Assuming normally distributed income levels, a Pearson correlation test has been run in SPSS. As shown in the SPSS output below, there is a statistically significant association between ‘Age of Dublin residents’ and the income of Dublin residents (r=-0.67,p=0.02). The correlation value of negative in SPSS implies that as ‘Age of Dublin residents’ increases, the income of Dublin residents falls. It is important to note that in real life, we should expect opposite results for Dublin residents, with income increasing with age, and vice versa. However, as we have used fictitious data for Dublin residents in SPSS, we see odd results in our SPSS output.

Importantly, at Data Analysis Ireland, we assist Dublin students and researchers with SPSS, STATA, R, EVIEWS, MEDCALC, JAMOVI, EXCEL. Dublin researchers often use SPSS help or grinds to clean and analyse data, which they have wither collected from a primary survey using a website like ‘Survey Monkey’, or have used some secondary source like World Bank, CSO etc. Using assistance from ‘Data Analysis Ireland’ in SPSS and STATA assures Dublin researchers of getting the maximum from their data.

At Data Analysis Ireland, we also undertake private statistical and econometric training for staff of private and public organizations in Dublin. We deliver training in Dublin in the form of workshops in statistical software like SPSS, STATA, EXCEL, R, JABMOVI, EVIEWS, MEDCALC. Our training in Dublin is divided into three difficulty levels: Level 1 (basic), Level 2 (moderate) and Level 3 (advance).

For SPSS and STATA help or grinds, contact us at ‘support@dataanalysis.ie’. You can also call us or WhatsApp us at 089 278 9288.